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Annotated Bibliography for the Whitepaper

 *Our nice and neat formatting was completely massacred by WordPress while trying to copy/paste to my blog…anyone know of anything I could do to copy/paste from Word and keep it as is? Please let me know!


Blanchette, K., (April 2004). Effects of MP3 Technology on the Music Industry: An

Examination of Market Structure and Apple iTunes. Retrieved on October 17, 2007

This article definitely gives the information about the path that we have taken to come today. It is really hard to find an article that combines the copyright side and the structure side of the “music downloading” case. There is a brief history in the beginning that makes easy to see where we have come from to this point. In the article most of the data cover the years 1999 to 2003 but the information it includes, makes the current situation easy to understand and also helps to make predictions about the future of the music market. And in the last part of the article there are numeric data that is used to describe the “pricing” side of the case. Absolutely the “pricing” factor still being and will be the dominant factor for the future of the market.

Burrows P., (2005). Is This Digital Music’s Future. From Business Week Online. Retrieved

on October 17, 2007

This article, by Business Week online, examines another question is going to become an important issue for an increasing percentage of consumers: Namely, what will the sound quality of this music be? It is obvious that that fast technology will increase the quality of formats but do the consumers will care about this? Definitely answer will be effective in describing the future. Like many other issues these questions also needed to be answered in the future part of our study.

Crampton, T., (2006). iTunes legal attacks spread from France. Finance, p.17.

This article talks about the legal issues faced by iTunes in the past. Although this focuses on several European countries, it shows that people have issues with iTunes. For example, iTunes does not allow users to play songs on devices made by Apple’s rivals. This prevents users from transferring their music to devices of their choice. Users are unhappy because they are prevented from doing what they want with a service they are paying for. This will be used to show that people are not entirely happy with the iTunes program. It will help set the stage for the issues that should be overcome.

Fisher, W., (2000). Digital Music: Problems and Possibilities. Retrieved on 10/28/07 from

This article examines the problems and possible benefits of digital downloading. This article will serve as evidence for the rise and popularity of music downloading. Although online music downloading is extremely popular, it is important to consider the negative aspects of this phenomenon as well as the positive aspects. Along with discussing the various possibilities that can arise from this popular practice, this article also examines the problems that may arise. It is important to consider this in order to see the big picture. With this article, I hope to paint a more accurate picture of the topic of music downloading.

Gasser, U., Palfrey, J., Slater, D., Bambauer, D., Bragin, A., Harlow, J., Hoffmann, C.,

Hwang, R., Jackson, J., Krog, G., Locke, E., Mohr, S., Reidel, I., & Wilson, C. L.,(2004).

iTunes; How Copyright, Contract, and Technology Shape the Business of Digital

Media, A Case Study. Digital Rights Management.

In this article, there is a huge perspective has been drawn about the legal and business side of our case. Absolutely when the market is this big, there would be many issues about the law side of the case. In first part of the study there is important information that is presented chronological order. And the researchers did not limit themselves with United States; there are detailed information about the copyright law from Japan, China and more. Starting from law side of the case the study finishes with the consumer side and also from basic explanation to complicated matters this study covers everything. Everything is what you need when you will try to do some predictions for the future of the market. This article will be helpful in our last part; “the future of cell phones in downloading music”.

Gibbs, C., (2007). Mobile music fails to find its rhythm. Retrieved October 17, 2007, from

This article, which focuses on mobile music and its struggle to compete with iTunes, will be used to illustrate the success and popularity of iTunes. Because iTunes is easier and cheaper to use, it is creating an enormous competition with the mobile music industry. People are now turning to iTunes to transfer music onto their mobile phones, as opposed to going directly to the mobile music source. Although the mobile platform is appealing to record industries, they have some hurdles to overcome like being expensive, complicated and slow. This article will also be used to show some of the problems that iTunes is creating.

Grassi, L., (August 2007). The Music Market in the Age of Download. Retrieved on October

17, 2007 from

Although this article mostly covers the music market of Italy, it includes a theoretical model, which investigates the consequences of the appearance of a pirate low quality good (typically an mp3) in the music market. Different than other articles, this one focused on the worries about the future of the market. I believe the pirate act is affecting the market and it has to be considered for the future of the market. With its numeric equations this article also gives me an idea to approach the problems of the market and the tables in the last part give information about the US market.

Jones, K.C. (2007). CD Purchase Gap Not Filled By Music Downloads.

TechWeb/Information Week. Retrieved October 25, 2007, from Lexus Nexus


This article by K.C. Jones states that the lack of CD purchases is not totally filled by music downloads. Impulse buying and also the simple habit of purchasing physical product are down and fell 15% compared to 2002. This piece has lots of good numbers regarding actual CD sales (or lack thereof) and will mainly be used to express the fact that sales are down. Interestingly enough, it also states that downloading is not filling that gap, which raises some interesting questions we will face and tackle. Other source will be needed to fill in the afterthoughts of this piece; however, Jones’s work will definitely be one of the solid jump-starts for our whitepaper.

Jones, K.C. (2007). RIAA Sends Message But Won’t Stop File-Sharing.

TechWeb/Information Week. Retrieved October 25, 2007, from Lexus Nexus


This article is more news related, and will also only be used for facts. Another piece by Jones, this article discusses the lawsuit the RIAA filed against a Minnesota woman, Jammie Thomas, regarding the downloading of 24 copyrighted songs. The RIAA won the case, marking the first successful win the RIAA has seen since beginning its fight against illegal downloading. Being so relevant and recent to our topic of discussion, Thomas vs. the RIAA must be included somehow. This case won’t hold too much significance to our final endgame, though, must be discussed briefly to show the side of the Industry biting back against illegal downloaders.

Ketterl, M., Mertens, R., Morisse, K., (2006). Alternative content distribution channels for

mobile device.

Mobile devices are seemed to be continued their popularity for the future. In this instant-consumer’s world, they can be called the survivors. So in order to find out how these survivor open its resources to music, I found this article exciting. This paper explores how pod casts can be used to enhance “classic” e-learning technology as well as how content can be produced, distributed and edited in a collaborative fashion. Mostly about pod casts, this article tries to summarize the technology of our case. Technology tries to make the things easier for the consumers. I will try to take these instructions further by thinking about future of mobile devices.

Klaassen, A., (2007). Rights Protection may restrict digital music, but don’t blame Apple.

Advertising Age Vol. 78 Issue 7.

This article examines Digital Rights Management (DRM) and the recent issues that Apple has had with it. Digital Rights Management is a term that is used to describe the access control technologies that publishers and other copyright holders use to limit the handling of digital media or devices. This source will be used to illustrate digital rights management. There has always been an on-going debate on digital rights management and whether music should or should not be sold DRM-free. Digital rights management is an important aspect of online music and this article is another example of that.

Kusek, D., & Leonhard, G. (2005). The Future Of Music. New York: Berklee Press.

Retrieved October 19, 2007 from:

In Kusek and Leonhard’s book, the authors provide their take on the future of the industry, including an in-depth analysis of the impact of the “digital revolution” on the business, and prospects for a future where music will be “ubiquitous and free-flowing”. They make other predictions, some obvious and some inevitable, including the disappearance of CDs and record retailers, consumer access to a vast array of product online, and the emergence of more subscription based services and multi-access deals. The book is a solid source of information with focus on an industry overview, both current and past, conjoined with perspectives of the future. Their work provides sufficient background information and will more likely be used at the beginning of our whitepaper, as we will be generating our own questions and solutions for the future of music. The authors also have an online blog in conjunction with this book, and the present researchers will also be reviewing that work as well.

Leeds, J. (2007, May 28). Plunge in CD Sales Shakes Up Big Labels. The New York

Times. Retrieved October 19, 2007 from:

This story covered by Jeff Leeds will serve a similar purpose to K.C. Jones’s source on the CD purchase gap. Leeds writes about CD sales and how they are “shaking up” the big labels. He briefly mentions the Beatles, and Paul McCartney’s signing to Starbucks’ new label as an example of industry change. With a new paradigm setting into place, even major acts are changing their strategies and partnerships in order to survive industry shifts. Leeds also quotes that sales have plunged an additional 20% and mentioned that the question now is “how to weather the worsening storm”.

Media Week. (2005). Review 2005: Downloads begin to come of age as media jump

on board. Retrieved October 25, 2007, from Lexus Nexus Database.

This source was not the best we’ve found. Although coming from Media Week, we couldn’t even find the author’s name. That said, the article did seem useful because it notes the occurrence in 2005 where for the first time, downloaded singles had outsold that of physical CDs. It discusses iTunes and the success of Napster, both relevant to our topic, though fails to really bring in a solid piece of new information other than a few good facts. This source will be used sparingly, if at all, on the final draft of the whitepaper. Another source might eventually replace it, but as of now, the numbers from early 2005 where downloaded singles soared remain of interest to the researchers.

New Musical Express, (2007). Illegal downloading on the rise. Retrieved on October 17,


This article, by New Musical Express, examines a study done by the Entertainment Media Research. The study found that there has been an increase in both legal and illegal downloading. The study found that there has been a seven percent increase in illegal downloading and a two percent increase in legal downloading since 2006. This article will be used to help demonstrate the rising trends in online music downloading and the shift from traditional CDs to digital downloading. The article helps show what will continue to be popular and in demand.

Sandulli, F. D., & Martin-Barbero, S. (2007). 68 Cents per Song: a Socio-Economic

Survey on the Internet. Convergence: The International Journal of Research

into New Media Technologies. Retrieved October 20, 2007, from Communication

Studies database.

This article was found to be extremely interesting. The authors examined users of P2P networks to discover how much, if any, “users would be willing to pay for a digital song at an online music store when they can download songs for free via these networks”. Their findings showed that if music had a higher perceived value and if there was more intense prosecution on copyright violations, willingness to legally download would skyrocket and the users would pay for online music and eliminate the use of P2P. Though extremely useful to the present researchers, we will be looking into more works similar to this from other authors to see if multiple and similar findings exist. Asking the question “How much are users willing to pay?” really turns the table away from illegal downloading and takes the topic to even more interesting places: e-Commerce and the future of the Industry. This source will definitely help us bridge the gap from the present to the future.

Taylor, C., (2006). Tapping into digital download data. Retrieved October 19, 2007 from



Programs such as iTunes serve as a measuring tool for record industries to read on popular artists and artists not yet been released by their record labels. BigChampagne (which charts the popularity of downloads on unauthorized downloads) found that James Blunt’s first single was downloaded 1 million times before he was signed by a U.S. label. Because of programs like iTunes, James Blunt found an audience and his album reached gold, a rarity for most pop ballads. I will be using this to show the significance of programs like iTunes, and the ways the music industry is also benefiting from it.


One Response to “Annotated Bibliography for the Whitepaper”

  1. Like others this is also damn interesting… thanks for the great stuff

    Real Estate Law Temecula

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